Every smart device with access to the internet has a dedicated IP address through which they communicate. Since it is much easier to remember names than a sequence of numbers, IP addresses were substituted with names when accessing web pages. The task of translating a domain name to an IP address, and vice versa, is given to a service called Domain Name System or DNS for short.
A DNS uses a series of records to help store and manage vital information related to a domain. This article will go over the different types of DNS and how they define and manage records, specifically in the ArvanCloud User Panel.
Types of DNS Records
Head over to your user panel, click on the CDN menu, and navigate to the DNS Records section to define and manage your DNS records. Different types of records and their functions can be set from here, and they are as follows:
Address Record (A Record)
This record stores a domain name and the IP address associated with the origin server where the domain’s content is located. This section’s settings are as follows:
- Name: Your website’s domain name or sub-domain is displayed here. Make sure the domain name you are about to enter meets the following requirements:
- Must begin with a letter or number. In other words, your domain name cannot start with a special character such as # and $)
- Must end with a number or letter.
- Special characters (like $ or @) can not be included in the domain name.
- Ultimately your domain name can include a maximum of 63 characters.
- Value: The IP address for your host’s origin server is displayed here.
- Time to Live (TTL): This field determines how long a record can be cached on ArvanCloud’s servers. To learn more about this field, please refer to our article titled “What Does TTL in the DNS Records Settings Stand For?”
This record, while similar to A Record, differs significantly in that it stores the IPv6 address of a given domain name with it. Its settings are also identical to the fields in A Record except for the addition of the IPv6 address field of your host’s origin server.
Name Server Record (NS Record)
NS Record is indicative of a DNS server where all records related to a domain are stored. A domain can have multiple NS Records, one of which refers to the primary DNS server and other supporting DNS servers. It is essential to mention that you would only need to define this record in your ArvanCloud User Panel in specific circumstances.
The TXT Record contains a text and proves useful in different scenarios, the most important of which is Mail Identity Verification and to define SPF and DKIM records. When trying to set this record, please select it from the Type menu and then enter @ (which refers back to your main domain) in the name field and fill in the Value section with a string of text you wish to set destination for your host. In case you also want to define SPF or DKIM records, please follow these two guides on how to create a suitable string of text for your purposes:
- An Introduction to SPF Record and Its Setup on ArvanCloud’s User Panel
- An Introduction to DKIM Record and Its Setup on ArvanCloud’s User Panel
The SRV Record is indicative of a host that supports a specific service. When trying to set this record, please select it from the Type menu and enter the following @_service._proto.example.com. (for example, @_sip_tcp.example.com.) in the Name field. In the Port section, enter the port number for the service that is currently running on it. Finally, in the Value section, you will need to enter a string that looks like exampledomain.com.
If you wish to define several SRV records, make sure to fill in the Weight and Priority fields according to your specifications.
Mail Exchange Record (MX Record)
This record is indicative of an email server where the emails of a given domain are sent. This record must always be referencing a domain name and not an IP address.
To start setting up this record, you will need to enter your primary domain or the @ sign in the Name section and the domain name you use as your email service in the Value section. If you use different email servers, then you will need to define multiple MX Records and then prioritize them based on rank in the Priority section.
Canonical Name Record (CNAME Record)
The CNAME Record’s primary function is to send requests from one domain to another. For instance, if a user types in example.com that request is directed to example1.com. Similar to the MX Record, this record does not directly refer to an IP address.
To set this record, you should enter the domain or sub-domain from which a user request is sent initially in the Name section and enter the domain name for where that request should be directed to in the value section.
This record can be thought of as a combination of A Record and CNAME. The only difference is that, contrary to CNAME’s function, this record directs a domain directly to an IP address. This article should prove informative regarding how this record functions:
- An Overview on ANAME Record and Its Setup on ArvanCloud’s User Panel